【所史專欄】史丹福中心時期與今日ICLP的樞紐——教務處

The Instructional Office: Hub of ICLP

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歷屆教務、李小慧(翻譯)
Authors: Current and Previous Staff of ICLP’s Instructional Office, Translator: Jonathan Lee


教務處可以說是史丹福中心時期與今日
ICLP運作的樞紐,教務處的具體職責包括哪些?教務主任身為統籌教務的靈魂人物,又肩負何種重擔?隨著時代的推移,上述兩個問題的答案也不可同日而語。儘管如此,我們仍能透過早期的史料與歷屆教務主任的訪談窺見一斑。

The Instructional Office (IO) was the hub of operations during both the Stanford Center era and the ICLP of today. What duties do they have exactly? And what responsibilities does the chief instructor of the IO, who is a key figure in coordinating and planning administration affairs, undertake?  As time has passed, the answer to these two questions has become more difficult to mention on equal terms. Nevertheless, by examining records of interviews with the previous chief instructors of the IO, we can take a glance at a small part of it.

史丹福中心首屆所長丁愛博博士早年來臺學中文時,發現傳統教法成效不彰,深感需要引進最新的美式語言教學法(即「聽說同步教學法」)來培訓師資。中心第一任教務主任是高恭億先生,根據本所已退休之彭毅老師的回憶,並參照高先生編寫的教學手冊,可得知本所在教法上有非常嚴謹之標準方式(即SOP),比方老師不可跟學生以英文交談,注意師生說話時間的比例分配等,此教學法亦反映本所的基本教學理念:強調以聽說為主的教學模式,要求老師在課堂上以「倒梯形式」領說,使學生自然習得語序,並主張「抬頭式」教學法,使學生習慣面對面自然溝通,而非埋首課本。以下就從幾個面向來介紹教務處的工作。

When Dr. Albert Dien, the first director of the Stanford center, came to Taiwan to study Chinese many years ago, he noticed traditional teaching methods produced poor results. He felt Taiwan needed the introduction of the latest method of language instruction (the audiolingual method) to train its teachers. The first chief instructor of the program’s IO was Mr. Gao Gong-yi. According to both the recollection of retired teacher Peng Yi and teaching manuals written by Mr. Gao, we have learned that Mr. Gao had strict “Standard Operating Procedures” for the teachers’ teaching method. For example, he did not allow teachers to speak English, and paid great attention to the amount of class time teachers spent speaking in class. This teaching method reflected the foundational pedagogical principle of the school: to emphasize speaking and listening. The principle required teachers to lead students in repeating progressively longer sentences starting from the end in order to allow students to naturally learn sentence order, and subscribed to the “heads up” teaching method to get students accustomed to face-to-face communication instead of burying their heads in their books.

Below we will introduce the work of the IO through several different aspects.

(一)排課

國內其他大學的華語教學中心一般是由行政庶務人員負責排課,ICLP自創所以來都是由資深教師統籌的教務處包辦的。教務主任必須有多年的教學經驗,教過各級各類的教材,也熟悉學生如何從零起點到聽說讀寫能力程度皆近似國人的過程,使其結業時能流利表述如學者專家(而非只是日常口語)。因此才能依據學生在入學時與其一對一面試的結果,以及其中文能力筆試成績,再考量諸多因素,為每位學生量身訂做最切合其需要的課程。

本所的主要目標為培養學者專家,因而排課既要合乎學生個別程度、興趣及專業需求,還要注意合班同學之質性,並配合教師及合班同學的時間。加上本單位學生每日上課四小時,其中一小時為單班課,其餘均為四人的合班課,以100位學生為例,每一天全校師生需要安排的總課時即高達175小時,不但每位師生的課程與時間都不能重複,過程中若有任何課程或師生名稱的遺漏或誤植,要找到問題根源的難度不低於大海撈針,排課初期有時發現問題,要重新調整或修改,也都是牽一髮而動全身。此外,排課常常只有一星期,在如此巨大的時間壓力下,教務主任幾乎都要不眠不休,挑燈夜戰才能如期完成。箇中辛苦只有擔任過教務主任的人方能領略。

1. Arranging Classes

For other Chinese learning centers in Taiwan, the general administration affairs staff usually bear the responsibility of arranging classes. However, since its founding, ICLP has utilized its senior teachers to make all the class arrangements. The chief instructor of the IO must have many years of teaching experience, have taught classes of varying levels and subjects, and versed in the process of taking a student’s Chinese level from zero all the way to almost being able to rival a native professional in listening, speaking, reading, and writing. By the time these students graduate, they can fluently convey an idea like any scholar or expert (and not just using everyday spoken language). Thus, by looking at the results of the one-on-one entry oral exam and the written Chinese test, and then taking into consideration many other factors, the IO can tailor a suitable schedule to the needs of each student.

The program’s main goal is to train professionals and scholars. Thus, when arranging classes, the IO must match classes based on a student’s individual language level, interests, and major. They must also make a note of classmates’ personalities in group classes and coordinate class time for the teachers and group classes. Furthermore, the program requires each student to have four hours of classes a day, with one hour for individual classes, and the other three for group classes. Thus, if there are 100 students, there would be upwards of 175 hours of class hours in a day that must be planned. Not only must the teachers’ and students’ schedules not conflict, but also if there is an error or typo in any of their schedules, identifying the problem is like trying to find a needle in a haystack. In the beginning stages of the program, some problems would occasionally occur in arranging classes. The IO would then need to start over and make adjustments and revisions, yet one alteration to an item on the schedule would cause all the others to change. On top of that, the IO often only get a week to complete the arrangement of classes. Under the stress of such a time constraint, the chief instructor either does not sleep or works through the night to finish it on time. Only chief instructors of the IO could understand all the hard work involved.

(二)代課安排

國內其他華語教學中心遇到老師因故請假時,大部分都是由老師們自行找老師代課,但是本所都是由教務處找適任的老師代課,不改動上課時間或地點,以照顧學生學習權益。

 2. Arranging Substitute Teachers

When a teacher in other Chinese programs in Taiwan wishes to take a day off, he or she usually needs to find a substitute on his or her own. But in ICLP, the IO looks for a suitable teacher to substitute for the absent teacher. They do not change the class time or location so as to protect the studying rights of the students.

(三)師資培訓

從史丹福中心時代以來,除了新進老師的職前培訓,所長與教務主任均會積極安排講座、教學觀摩、工作坊、海外參訪進修等在職培訓活動,不斷讓老師共同提升教學技能。近十多年來,教務處更加強語言學本體研究,並與教學實務結合,讓老師們的理論基礎更為提升,打造更堅實的教學團隊,除了原有的常春藤盟校學生以外,近十年來也成為不少團班,包括美國大學理事會的漢語領航計畫的教學單位。

    為了滿足本所師資需求以因應學生逐年增加的趨勢,2000年教務處也開辦國內大學第一所學理與實務兼備的華語師資培訓班,後來也成為全國各大學成立類似課程的標竿,同時也為僑委會、國合會、學術交流基金會等機構甄試、代訓外派華語師資,顯見本所在提升全國華語教育上具有相當的貢獻。

3. Teacher Training

Since the era of the Stanford Center, the program director and IO chief instructor have made an effort to arrange numerous opportunities for teachers to improve their teaching skills together. Other than the training for new teachers before school starts, they also arrange on-the-job instruction through lectures, teaching demonstrations, teaching workshops, and overseas visits and training. Over the past ten years, the IO has done even more to further research in language studies itself and combine it with applied teaching experience in an effort to improve teachers’ basic theoretical knowledge and create a more solid teaching team. Other than the program’s original partnership with Ivy League students, it has also become a teaching institution of many other associations including the Chinese Language Flagship Program of the College Board.

In order to fulfill the need for more qualified teachers in response to an increasing number of students each year, the IO established the first Chinese teacher training course at a Taiwanese university. Combining theory and practicality, the course later became the benchmark for similar courses established by universities throughout Taiwan. It also became the admission exam and training course for institutions like Overseas Chinese Committee, Taiwan International Cooperation and Development Fund, and Fulbright Foundation who wanted to send teachers abroad to teach. Evidently, ICLP has contributed a considerable amount towards advancing Chinese education in Taiwan.

(四)維持教學品質

 教務處另一重要責任是維持優良的教學品質,因此每學期安排時間進入各課堂觀課、考評是不可或缺的工作。觀課之後均會做書面紀錄,並與授課老師討論,提出回饋意見,有時也彙整教學、測驗等方面檢討意見,在工作坊與全體老師共同分享,使老師們能持續精進。

如果學生在學習方面或課堂上表現有問題,教務處也會建議其導師、單班課老師予以積極輔導;教務處也設有學生課後輔導機制,學生有任何課堂上來不及解決的問題,或個人發音、聲調、學習策略、語言能力測驗考試等方面的問題,都可獲得較為全面而完善的輔導。

4. Maintain Teaching Quality

Another important duty of the IO is to maintain teaching quality. Thus, each semester, the chief instructor has the necessary responsibility to enter classrooms and conduct observations and evaluations. After the observation, the chief instructor keeps written records and talks about it with the teacher being observed. The chief instructor then provides feedback, and occasionally collects comments on the teacher's teaching method and quizzes to be shared with all the teachers in a workshop to help the teacher continue improving.

If a student is having a problem with his or her studies or is not performing well in class, the IO will encourage the student’s mentor or one-on-one teacher to take the initiative in helping the student. For after class, the IO has also set up a tutoring system for students in which they can get comprehensive tutoring on questions they did not have time to get answered in class or for problems involving pronunciation, tones, study skills, standardized tests, etc.

(五)測驗評量

考試也是教務處的重點工作之一。教務處除了負責上述的入學口、筆試之外,也統籌每學期全校性的成就測驗。成就測驗分筆試與口試。早期由於學生人數不多,學期筆試由教務主任負責組卷,即從大量的題庫中選出適合每位學生的考題,裝訂成一份該名學生專屬的考卷。後來為了因應學生人數倍增,教務處也為老師安排測驗評量在職培訓,並將題庫提供給老師使用。目前大都由老師根據學生學習情況與進度先組卷完畢,經教務處審核修改,該份試卷就可正式使用。

5. Tests

Tests are also a key part of the work of the IO. In addition to the aforementioned entry oral and written exam, the IO is also fully responsible for planning every semester's program-wide final exam. The exam is split into a written and oral exam. Earlier in the program’s history when the program did not have many students, the IO chief instructor compiled the end-of-semester written exam, which involved selecting test questions suitable to the student from a large database of questions, then stapling it into a test meant specifically for the student. Later, to attend to a rapid increase in students, the IO arranged training for exams and shared the exam question database with all the teachers. Currently, the test are mostly completed by the teachers who base the questions off the students’ learning situation and progress. Afterwards, the test must go through a review by the IO. Only then can the test officially be given.

早期期末口試則為教務老師與每位學生一對一對話,針對該學期的學習內容進行測驗,並錄音存檔。自2008年起,一則因為學生人數倍增,二則為了進一步培養學生於公眾場合以中文演講或進行學術研討評析的能力,我們開始將口試改為全校性的期末成果發表,讓不同等級的學生有機會彼此切磋、交流,也可讓學生更確切了解自己在每學期的進步,看到同儕值得效法求的標竿,而帶給學生更強的學習動機。

In the early days of the program, the end-of-semester oral exam used to be a one-on-one interview with IO teachers, who would ask questions regarding material the student had studied that semester. The teachers would then record and save the answers. Starting in 2008, ICLP changed the oral exam to a program-wide end-of-semester speech. They did so for two reasons. One, the number of students dramatically increased. Two, the programmed wanted to prepare students to give public speeches and academic lectures in Chinese. Students of varying levels thus can have the chance to learn from and interact with each other, which gives them the opportunity to find out how much they progressed each semester, to notice others worthy of emulation, and to give them more motivation to study Chinese.

(六)教學研究

本所自史丹福時代起的教學法,即一直強調以聽說帶動讀寫,早就反映以學生為中心,兼具溝通及任務導向之教學法精神。自全球中文熱以來,我們所面對的學生與二十年前的大不相同,其專業學習面向更多元,對老師教學能力的要求也更高。教務處2006年率先引進第二語言教學最新的理論,即鄧守信教授的教學語法理念,推動全所老師共同研修,將教法向上翻轉,因應多樣的教學需求與挑戰。

6. Research in Teaching Methods

Starting during the Stanford Center era, the program’s teaching method has been to stress speaking and listening to spur reading and writing. This fostered a spirit for a student-centric, task-oriented, and communication-based teaching method. In the wake of global interest in the Chinese language, we have seen significant changes in the student demographic.

The Chinese learners’ specialities and majors have diversified, which has set higher requirements for the teacher’s teaching ability. In 2006, the IO became the first to introduce the most recent theory in Chinese teaching: Professor Teng Shou-Hsin’s pedagogical grammar principles. His ideas spurred teachers to work together in pursuing further research, take their teaching skills to a whole new level and adapt to the challenge of an increasing need for diverse teaching methods.

(七)教材編寫

本所課程大部分都使用自編教材,但也引進海內外其他單位出版的教材。為符合最新教學語法理念的要求,教務處2006起陸續將原有的教材詞彙加註鄧守信教授制定的詞類標記,也修改舊教材生詞表註釋採詞典形式註記,避免字本位的生詞表,羅列與課文篇章不相關的詞條,使學生學習達到事半功倍之效。

此外,近二十年來的學生對教材的專業需求日趨增加,面對這樣的挑戰,本所目前的教材共有八級,除了原有的教材以外,在2006年就推出《台大華語》(NTU Chinese) 線上自學軟體,2010也編寫出版《情境華語系列》自學教材,而各級聽力、文言文、新聞、閱讀、文學、商業、翻譯、辯論等各種專業的新教材都陸續完成,並有許多新教材還在持續研發中。舊教材的修訂與新教材的研發都是在教務處統籌、監督下,由教務主任親自帶領編寫團隊或委由資深教師組成教材研發小組持續推動。

7. Compiling Teaching Materials

The program writes most of its own material, but also uses material written by other overseas institutions. Starting in 2006, in order to meet demands for the most recent grammar concept in teaching, the IO added in Professor Teng Shou-Hsin’s part of speech system to the vocabulary section of their original teaching materials. They also got rid of the dictionary-style annotations on the notes in the vocabulary lists in order to avoid character-based vocabulary lists, dictionary-like glossaries, and vocabulary entries not related to the text. The newer system has helped students spend less time studying while getting more results.

Moreover, over the past twenty years, students’ specific needs for learning materials have increased daily. In facing this challenge, the program offers eight levels of Chinese classes in all. In addition to the teaching materials the program already had, ICLP released a self-study software called “NTU Chinese.” The program also wrote and published a series called Situational Chinese for self-study. Shortly after, ICLP completed all levels of listening, classical Chinese, news, reading, literature, business, translation, debate and other specialized teaching materials. Many new teaching materials are still undergoing further research and development. The IO must coordinate and oversee the revision of old materials and the development of new materials. The continued promotion of these materials is a task undertaken either by a group who the IO chief instructor personally heads or senior teachers who organize into a small research and development group.

在歷任所長的指導與信任、託付下,教務處可說是本所的運轉樞紐之一。為了與時俱進,歷任教務主任也進入研究所深造,取得碩博士學位。教務處肩負傳承使命,將秉承前人留下的優良傳統,殫精竭慮,時時刻刻上緊發條以因應多變的全球華語教學局勢。

With the guidance and trust of the previous program directors, one might say the IO is one of the hubs of program operations. In fact, in an effort to keep up with the times, some of the IO chief instructors have gone to graduate school and gotten their PhDs. The staff at the IO bear the responsibility of carrying out the mission to pass down a tradition of high quality imparted to them by their predecessors. They make every effort in staying vigilant at all times to adapt to the ever-changing global trends in Chinese studies.